Город бешаных рефератиков





Реферат Books /english/ (WinWord)


We may have the great honour to be present at the decline of printing as such. The books as the mass pastime have been ousted from our lives for several decades already. Modern electronic mass media (radio, television) are ousting books more and more; the bookshelves in people’s homes are getting sparse. However, several hundreds years ago the invention of printing was the initial factor that at once changed all conditions of the intellectual life of Western Europe.

The present paper is an attempt at seeing connections between the invention of printing and one of the most significant events in the life of mediaeval Europe – the Reformation. The fighting of the Catholic church against books and the creation of the powerful institution of censorship will be viewed. There will also be an attempt to view how printing stimulated the growth of national conscience and the forming of literary language. Besides that, the development of political science in the 16th century and the formation of the bases of the future middle class and the basic political parties will be touched upon.


In Europe the books became cheaper and more widespread when the use of paper became more frequent, especially as a strong rise of intellectual life of society went together with this after the crusades and the development of universities. In the 13th century there was a special post in the universities, the so-called STATIONARII. These people urged students to copy books, took books on commission from the Jewish usurers who did not have the right to sell books themselves and from leaving students; therefore the stationarii were the first booksellers in new Europe. In the beginning of the 14th century in Paris the booksellers as such separated from the Stationarii; but even they still gave oath to the university and were subordinate to it. In the end of the 14th and the beginning of the 15th century in the “Latin quarter” whole houses and side streets were inhabited by book-copiers, calligraphers, bookbinders, parchment-makers, paper-sellers. In 1403 text-writers in London united into a special guild; the same thing happened in some places in Holland as well. In the 15th century in Italy there were booksellers who kept a large number of scribes in their stores, so they could publish books even before the invention of printing. At this time in all big cities of Europe there were public libraries where books could be taken home (libri vagantes), whereas other books, especially valuable and voluminous ones were attached to writing desks with iron chains. Already in the 15th century almost everywhere there were booksellers and corporations of book-copiers who tried to satisfy the needs not only of rich people, but of people with medium income as well. The books sold were books of prayers, didactic and secular (entertaining) books.


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